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modal auxiliary verbs

Modal auxiliary verbs

See also:
advice / suggestions
permission / prohibition
deductions / guesses

The following ESL resources are available for Modal auxiliary verbs:

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Introduction to modals
Language analysis worksheet introducing the modals and some of the functions they express. Students match modals to functions.


Multiple-choice modal auxiliary verbs quiz (38)
Ten-question, two-choice modals quiz (easy)


Modal auxiliary verbs - functions quiz (172)
20-question multiple-choice quiz where students identify functions from examples


Degrees of certainty quiz (221)
Multiple-choice quiz on modals for expressing degrees of certainty


Mixed modals quiz (274)
10 question multiple-choice quiz. Modals for possibility, obligation, ability - examples relating to the past, present and future.



General English course books (adults)

New Cutting Edge Upper Intermediate students' book book cover 

New Cutting Edge Upper Intermediate students' book 

Peter Moore   Sarah Cunningham   
Module 9 Mysteries, problems, oddities  Pages 96 - 4
Modals for ability and probability/possibility (deduction). Unit theme : mysteries.

Photocopiable resource books

Grammar Activities 2 - Upper Intermediate book cover 

Grammar Activities 2 - Upper Intermediate 

Will Forsyth   Sue Lavender   
38 Modal verbs - could / might / would / should / have done  Page 38 
could / could have; might / might have; should /should have
37 Modal verbs - would / should / could / have done  Page 37 
Gapped setences with pictures.
36 Modal verbs - possibility / probability  Page 36 
would, should and could have
32 - 33 Modal verbs - would / should / could / might  Pages 32 - 33
Would, could, should and might. Various functions.

General English adult course resource packs

Reward Pre-Intermediate Resource Pack  book cover 

Reward Pre-Intermediate Resource Pack  

Sue Kay   
26 My ideal world  Page 26 
Students complete statements about their ideal world beginning (person) must... e.g. 'A good friend must...' Then compare with others
36 This may be your life  Page 36 
May, might, will. won't Class survey to compare people's predictions about their futures.

ESL lesson plans

How Donald Trump Got Rich: A Tale of Three Trumps

US Election ESL worksheet 1 Donald Trump ESL worksheet 2 Donald Trump worksheet 3 Donald Trump ESL worksheet 4 Donald Trump ESL worksheet 5 Donald Trump ESL worksheet 6
B1 / B2 Complete lesson Skills: split reading; discussion; role play Vocabulary: business and economics

Download A Tale of Three Trumps for B1/B2 (PDF)
C1 Complete lesson Skills: split reading; discussion; Grammar: participle clauses

Download A Tale of Three Trumps for C1 (PDF)

US Election Special 2016

US Election ESL worksheet 1 US Election ESL worksheet 2 US Election ESL worksheet 3 US Election ESL worksheet 4
B2/C1 Complete lesson Vocabulary: politics, elections; skills: discussing elections and issues.

Download Politics and the US Election (PDF)

Wear high heels or go home: gender discrimination at work

Gender descrimination ESL worksheet 1 Gender descrimination ESL worksheet 2 Gender descrimination ESL worksheet 3
B2/C1 Complete lesson Vocabulary work clothes; skills: gender discrimination; grammar: reported speech.

Download Workplace gender discrimination (PDF)

English grammar notes

Comparison with as...as

Comprehensive grammar reference notes, illustrated.
Grammar notes on comparison with as..as 1 Grammar notes on comparison with as..as 2 Grammar notes on comparison with as..as 3
Download English grammar notes: comparison with as...as (PDF)