modals of deduction
Modals of deduction
We can use certain modal auxiliary verbs to make deductions, i.e. to make guesses based on known facts.
We can make deductions about the present :
'She's not here. She must be in the kitchen.'
We can also make deductions about the past :
The following ESL resources are available for Modals of deduction:
Set of 12 matching dominoes for possibility in the present: must, may, might, could
Letter. Students read and make guesses about sender and recipient.
Cut up strips. Ss read out problems. Others in group respond with a 'must have' 'could have' etc explanation
Dominoes game revising modals for degrees of certainty in the past, present and future.
Cross table with simple rules for use of modals for certainty
Matching an analysis of possible modals for expressing degrees of certainty in the future
Dominoes game revising modals for degrees of certainty in the past and present.
General English course books (adults)
Unit 10 Genius Pages 92 - 93Modals of deduction in present and past: describing and nterpreting paintings.
Photocopiable resource books
Will Forsyth Sue Lavender
29 - Detective work Page 29 Card game. Small groups.
Language for making deductions.
Murder-solving game with clue cards.
30 - Suggestive shapes Page 30 Picture ordering game. Deductions; Looks like.
Students descibe and makes guesses about abstract shapes.
Close-ups 2 page 26 Page 26 Close up pictures of everyday objects. Objects listed below.Ss must say,'It oould be a light bulb' etc.
(Rather too easy to match the objects negating the need for deduction lanauge)
Detective page 42 Page 42 A painting has been stolen from a gallery.
Ss look at picture of the room and make deductions.
'He must have escaped through the window' etc.
General English adult course resource packs
18a and 18b He looks nice Page 18 Must, can't might and could for deductions about the present. Students match picures (line drawings) with jobs.
38 Speculation Page 38 Deductions about present and past.
8 picture cards. Ss make deductions : (smiling woman holding letter - 'She must have had some good news' etc.)
19b & c Unsolved mysteries Page 19 (19b) Students read out short texts about five unsolved mysteries and speculate about possible explanations.
(19c) Read and match explanations with mysteries.