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See also:
permission / prohibition
deductions / guesses

The following ESL resources are available for Obligation:

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Jobs - obligation and permission
Students complete job cards by writing sentences using have to / don't have to / can and can't for a number of jobs. They then read these out to another group who have to guess the job. (18 cards)


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Obligation and necessity
Cue sheet for Ss talking about rules and regulations in their workplace


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Obligation and necessity II
Gap filled sentences on workplace rules and regulations using should, have to, don't have to, supposed to, are (not) allowed to, can, can't


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Obligation and permission questions matching
Students match beginnings and ends of sentences (questions) relating to obligation and permission and then ask each other the questions.


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Obligation I
Matching various situations to rules and appropriate phrases for obligation and permission


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Writing rules
Students write a set of six rules for one of eight places. Post on classroom wall. Others have to guess the place.


Obligation and necessity quiz - 01
Mulitple-choice quiz. Present time.


Obligation and necessity quiz 02
Ten-question mulitple choice quiz: have to / don't have to / must / mustn't/ is allowed to / can


Obligation, necessity and permission quiz 3
Sixteen-question MC quiz, past and present: must / mustn't, have to / don't have to, can, be allowed to + pasts of these


Obligation quiz - school trip
Ten-question MC quiz based on school rules and advice for a trip to a wildlife park,



General English course books (adults)

Inside Out Student's Book Intermediate book cover 

Inside Out Student's Book Intermediate

Susan Kay   Vaughan Jones   
Unit 10 Time  Pages 88 - 89
obligation, prohibition and permission must, should, have got to, don't have to, is supposed to, is allowed to T.39 - Three people talk about rules in their workplaces
Unit 16 Review 2  Page 137 
Quiz: rules, taboos etc around the world
New Cutting Edge Pre-Intermediate students' book book cover 

New Cutting Edge Pre-Intermediate students' book

Sarah Cunningham   Peter Moore   
Module 3 At rest, at work  Page 27 
can can't have to don't have to

Photocopiable resource books

Elementary Grammar Games book cover 

Elementary Grammar Games

Jill Hadfield   
33 - must, mustn't and needn't  Page 33 
Ss match half-sentences.
Grammar Activities 2 - Upper Intermediate book cover 

Grammar Activities 2 - Upper Intermediate

Will Forsyth   Sue Lavender   
34 Modal verbs - oblitation / ability  Page 34 
Gapped dialogue - obligation and ability
Intermediate Communication Games book cover 

Intermediate Communication Games

Jill Hadfield   
39 - Married life or Getting out of doing the washing-up  Page 39 
Ss make excuses for not doing household chores by saying, 'I've got to (have to) ...'
Play Games with English Book 2 (1981-8) book cover 

Play Games with English Book 2 (1981-8)

Colin Granger   John Plumb   
Signs page 8  Page 8 
Twelve signs to match with the place they might be found. Can be used to practice obligation. i.e. expand in to long oral form etc.
G B Holiday Quiz page 14  Page 14 
Obligation (have to / will have to) + ability. True / false quiz about travelling in the UK.
Sports quiz page 23  Page 23 
Match rules with sports.

General English adult course resource packs

Reward Intermediate Resource Pack book cover 

Reward Intermediate Resource Pack

Susan Kay   
19a and 19b On safari  Page 19 
Board game about a safari park. Cards with rules.
Progress check 16 - 20 Exchanging contracts  Pages 16 - 20
Ss read rules for students and produce a list of rules for teachers
Reward Pre-Intermediate Resource Pack  book cover 

Reward Pre-Intermediate Resource Pack

Sue Kay   
26 My ideal world  Page 26 
Students complete statements about their ideal world beginning (person) must... e.g. 'A good friend must...' Then compare with others
Reward Upper-intermediate Resource Pack book cover 

Reward Upper-intermediate Resource Pack

Susan Kay   
10a & b Alphabet game  Page 10 
Ss must take a card and say a word according to the instructions on the card.
9 - 12a When we were ten  Pages 9 - 12
Find out how many people... (had to wear school uniform etc.)


Comparison with as...as...

Comparison with <i>as</i>...</i>as...</as>: picture
Detailed grammar reference notes on comparison with as....
Three pages, illustrated. Includes positive and negative forms, modifiers and common similes.
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Download Comparison with as...as - grammar notes (PDF)

ESL lesson plans

Reading and vocabulary: workplace discrimination

Reading and vocabulary: workplace discrimination: picture
Work clothing vocabulary.
News story in graded English about woman who was sent home for refusing to wear high-heeled shoes.
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Download Dress code (PDF)

ESL lesson plans

Reading and vocabulary: How Donald Trump got rich: a tale of three Trumps

Reading and vocabulary: How Donald Trump got rich: a tale of three Trumps: picture
Three articles in graded English with lead-in and comprehension tasks.
Jigsaw reading for groups of three.
Grammar follow-up on participle clauses (PDF advanced version)
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Download Intermediate (PDF)
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Download Advanced (PDF)